In 1891, the first woman graduated from Cornell University with a degree in architecture. A decade later Sophia Hayden graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From these beginnings in the nineteenth century the number of women in the architectural profession grew to 50 by 1910. At that time half of the architecture programs in the U.S. openly denied admission to women. Well into the twentieth century, most of the country's universities maintained strict quotas restricting the admission of female students. These restrictions were relaxed only during times of male student shortage, ie, World Wars I and Il.

A pioneer woman architect Louise Blanchard Bethune (1856-1913), was the first woman to become a member of the AIA and also the first Fellow in 1888. Theodate Pope Riddle (1868-1946), another pioneer, hired faculty members to tutor her privately. She was the first woman to become a licensed architect in both New York and Connecticut and in 1926 was appointed to the AIA College of Fellows. In 1951, prevailing prejudices and overt action against women entering the architectural schools were expressed in writing by the dean of Harvard's Graduate School of Design. He wrote that professional education was wasted on women who would end up abandoning their career in favour of raising a family.

Pietro Belluschi, the dean of MIT's School of Architecture wrote in his essay of 1955, "The Exceptional One," "I know some women who have done well at it, but the obstacles are so great that it takes an exceptional girl to make a go of it. If she insisted upon becoming an architect I would try to dissuade her. If then she was still determined, I would give her my blessing that she could be that exceptional one." Many other outstanding women architect forged ahead despite these great obstacles and became role models for the generations to follow. The women's movement in the 1960s and 1970s with its Supreme Court backing of civil rights legislation modified such overt expressions of préjudice in the schools and in employment.

During the earlier periods, for a woman to receive the necessary education, mentorship, and apprenticeship required to become an architect she needed substantial financial reserves in addition to exceptional drive and perseverance. For example, Julia Morgan (1872-1957), was unable to obtain architectural education in the United States. She studied engineering at Cornell then had to travel to Paris to receive her architectural training at the Ecole des Beaux Arts.

The relatively small but -rowing numbers of women in architecture continually reveal that the ability to juggle time and major responsibilities of home, raising large families, and career can be amazing. These remarkable women are also recognised by their peers for outstanding architectural contributions.



There bas been an exponential increase in the number of women in architecture and their professional recognition in the final decades of the twentieth century. Quotas have been removed from school admission policies and women now comprise 20%-50% of the students in architecture schools. Affirmative action policies have provided a small percentage of government work to be awarded to minority and women owned businesses. The awards have aided these women in maintaining their own practices.

In May, 1988 the number of women Corporate members (licensed architect) in the AIA had increased to approximately 2100 which is equivalent to 4% of its total membership. Due to multiple state registrations it is difficult to determine the total number of licensed architect in the U.S. but an estimate would be twice the number of AIA Corporate members, or approximately 4200 registered women architect. Women's outstanding contributions to the profession have been recognised by fellowship in the AIA; 39 women have been inducted into the Colleue of Fellows between 1867-1986.

The civil rights movement of the 1970s resulted in Supreme Court decisions against discrimination because of one's colour, national origin, or sex, and supported affirmative action policies which provided women architect with a very small portion of -Government contracts. This enabled the increasing numbers of women who owned architectural firms to sustain a practice and encouraged many architectural schools to add women to their faculties. Women have fared somewhat better in auxiliary areas such as interiors, public relations, programming, and have even moved into other design fields of landscape architecture and graphic design.

Undaunted by the lack of role models and mentors, women have formed their own networks of associations in architecture, the first such organisation was formed in St. Louis in 1918. Similar networks exist today under names such as, The Association of Women in Architecture, The Organisation of Women in Architecture, Atlanta, Austin, Houston, College Station Tex., Denver, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, Roanoke, and San Francisco.




In the United States many Of the women in architecture are foreign born and trained. The Philippines, South America, and Europe appeared to encourage more women students than the U.S. did prior to the Women's Movement. Some notable examples are Fani Hansen (Bulgaria), Susan Torre (Argentina), Rosaria Pomelli (Italy), and Denise Scott Brown (born in Africa, educated in South Africa and Europe). In many of these foreign countries, women are repressed personally and socially but are able to work and advance without prejudice in their profession.


Two surveys by the AIA of women employees in architectural firms in 1974 and 1981 revealed a majority of women experienced discriminatory practices in school and later at work. There were incidents promoted by co-workers, contractions, and superiors with work assignments and professional g-growth into managerial positions. Despite these negative responses, seven out of ten would choose architecture again if they had the option of changing careers.




it would be impossible to list all the outstanding women architect in this summary, who despite formidable barriers have made a positive impact on their profession. As of 1989, with the exception of Lutah Maria Riggs and Mary

Colter, these women are still living and practising architects.


Elaine Carbrey, AIA. Elaine Carbrey earned her B.Arch. at Louisiana State University, her professional affiliations include the AIA and the AICP. She is Vice President and Head of the Planning Department of Gruen Associates in Los Angeles, involved with planning communities in several states and in foreign countries such as Antigua and Indonesia. Ms. Carbrey bas participated as Project Manager or Principal Planner in many city and regional planning projects, including: The Westwood Village Specific Plan and Environmental Impact Reports, Los Angeles; The Central Phoenix Development Plan, designed to assist the city in realising its potential as a major urban center in the Southwest and to provide an overall framework to guide public and private investments; Waterwood, a balanced, water oriented new town in east-central Texas which will contain public marinas, a yacht club, luxury resort hotels, lakefront and golf course condominiums, a marina village with restaurants, entertainment and speciality shops, plus complete community facilities and services in the areas of health, education, commerce, and recreation to accommodate an ultimate planned population of 25,000.

Ann Chaintreuil, AIA. Ann Chaintreuil received her M.Arch. at Syracuse University. She worked in the summers during her school years for local architecture firms.


the restoration of Imogen Cunningham Hall on the University of Washington campus.

Hastings' concern for energy efficiency predates the energy crisis era of alarm and was evident when she was the architect for several solar homes and remodels. She bas dealt successfully with the environmental factors and severe climates of sites as diverse as Kodiak, Alaska; cascade ski areas; and beaches assailed by gale-force winds.

After receiving her architectural education at the University of Washington, Jane Hastings gained valuable experience as an employee of several architectural firms on a variety of building types such as: industrial, manufacturing, educational, housing, office, theater, sports, museum, and laboratory facilities. Like many other women architect, she bas been involved extensively with professional, civic, and educational activities, such as National Director of the AIA and Vice President of the International Union of Women Architects. She bas served as a member of- the Council of Design Professionals; the city of Seattle Landmarks Preservation Board and the Design and Construction Review Board for the Seattle schools, and bas taught on the faculty of the University of Washington and the Seattle Community College.

Jané Hastings'tradition of quality architectural design bas been recognised locally and nationally with awards and publications spanning 20 years over two continents. Her designs have been published in: House Beautiful, House and Garden, Sunset Magazine, The Seattle Times, The AIA Journal, Sunset Books, House and Horne, and in Japanese publications.

Andrea P. Leers. Andrea P. Leers is a graduate of Wellesley College and received her M.Arch. from the University of Pennsylvania. Like many other women architects, she formed a professional partnership with her spouse. After the marriage ended she successfully continued the practice and retained such notable clients as: the Massachusetts Port Authority; the Hebrew College, Brookline, Mass.; Wheelock College, Boston; Tufts University, Medford, Mass.; and the Arlington Massachusetts Housing Authority. Ms. Leers bas been a member of the architecture faculty at Harvard, MIT, and Yale.

Laurie Mutchnik Maurer, FAIA. Laurie Maurer received her architectural education at Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York where she graduated with honors. After gaining a few years of experience with Philip Johnson Associates and Marcel Breuer & Associates she opened an office in partnership with her husband. In addition to a successful architectural practice Maurer finds time for continuous, extensive professional and public service and teaching on the faculty of Pratt Institute.

Laurie Maurer's architectural service and public service activities include: AIA Director, N.Y. region; Affirmative Action Committee; Task Force on Women; liaison to the National Council for Interior Design Qualifications; New York State Association of Architects, Task Force on Illegal Practice; AIA Design Award Jury member; work on the Advisory Committee/Parks Recreation and Cultural Affairs; and with the Mayor's Panel Committee.

In addition to these professional and public service activities, Laurie Maurer bas served on numerous panels serving women and the architecture profession. She works in a historic section of Brooklyn in offices designed and owned by Maurer and Maurer (Figs. 4 and 5).

Julia Morgan (1872-1957). Julia Morgan, unable to gain acceptance into a school of architecture, studied engineering at Berkeley and then went on to the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris where she was the first woman to be accepted into the architecture program. Upon her return, she became the first woman to be licensed in California and established a practice that produced many notable buildings, ie, the tourist attraction, San Simeon, otherwise known as the Hearst Castle in San Luis Obispo, Calif.

Morgan hired engineers, designers, and office staff to carry out her prolific designs of about 800 architectural projects. Always caring for her employees, she kept them on payroll during the depression. Showing attention to detail, she personally visited the construction sites to check contractors, materials, and craft workers.

Large-scale works to her credit include several early buildings, Mills' College, Oakland, the Asilomar Conference Center near Monterey; the Herald Examiner's newspaper plant, Los Angeles; and group housing and recreational facilities for YMCAs in the West and Hawaii. She also designed many churches, schools, and women's clubs. Julia Morgan demonstrated a pragmatic approach to architecture listening carefully to the voices of both clients and users.

Lutah Marie Riggs, FAIA (1896-1984). Lutah Marie Riggs, a pioneer in her profession graduated from the University of California, Berkeley in 1919 and established a practice in Santa Barbara, Calif. Her career spanned several decades and her devotion to quality products resulted in numerous outstanding residential and commercial projects such as the Lockwood Cabin at Lake Arrowhead, Calif, the Vedanta Temple and expansion to the El Paseo historic complex both in Santa Barbara. Ms. Riggs was active on the Santa Barbara AIA and served as both Commissioner and member of the California State Board of

Architectural Examiners. Lutah Riggs became the first woman in California to become a Fellow of the AIA.

Denise Scott Brown. Denise Scott Brown was born in Zambia, educated in South Africa, travelled to England, and finally to the United States. Her passion for architecture, particularly urban planning, propelled her to obtain a Master of City Planning and a M.Arch. from the University of Pennsylvania. Uniting architecture and planning she influenced environments and many students. Her powerful theories suggest that social, economic, political, and aesthetic concerns be treated as a whole and design of buildings or neighbourhoods should not be governed by merely functional or other narrow design parameters.

Denise Scott Brown taught on the architecture/planning faculty at an impressive number of schools, including: the University of Pennsylvania, Oberlin, Yale, Rice, UCLA, and UC Berkeley. She often had to fight for tenure or for the title "professor." "I became successively more bellicose." Her voice and influence bas been heard on jury and selection panels throughout Europe, U.S., and Africa.

Denise Scott Brown bas effectively combined career and family life by working with her husband. Her first husband Robert Scott Brown was killed in an auto accident. She later married Robert Venturi, FAIA. They are partners in the firm Venturi, Rauch and Scott Brown. She enjoys the challenge of working on small but difficult urban problems that entail requirements for social planning, democratic processes, incrementalism and pragmatism with concerns for preservation and economic viability. Her work bas been honored with an impressive number of awards from such organisations as, The National Endowment of the Arts, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, and the American Planning

Association, Eastern Pennsylvania Chapter. Notable projects to her credit include: A study of Fairmount Park, Philadelphia; Washington Avenue, Miami Beach; the Princeton Design Study; and the Strand Planning Study, Galveston, Tex.

Margot Siegel, AIA. Margot Siegel, born in Germany, moved to New York City as a young child where she attended Hunter College High School, a public school for gifted achievers. After receiving her B.Arch. (1955) from Pratt Institute in Brooklyn Siegel moved to Southern California where she worked for several architect including A. Quincy Jones, FAIA. In 1972 she ventured into her own practice with residential projects to facilities for non profit organisations such as the United Way, YWCA, NCJW, and facilities for public agencies such as the U.S. Navy, the V.A., and SCRTD. Other projects include commercial clients in the entertainment industry, and the design of three exposed concrete utilitarian buildings at Los Angeles International Airport: the Cooling Tower (Fig. 6), Co-generation Facility and Central Utility Plant Expansion. After practising for 14 years as a sole proprietorship, in 1985 she formed Siegel Sklarek Diamond A.I.A. Architects, a partnership, with Norma Sklarek, FAIA and Katherine Diamond, AIA, as a wholly women owned and managed firm. The firm's clients include several municipalities, three campuses of the University of California, and the Los Angeles Unified School District. Margot Siegel's design philosophy is to be responsive to the needs and budget of the client with consideration given to the users.

Cathy Simon, FAIA. After earning a B.A. from Wellesley College, Cathy Simon attended the Harvard Graduate School of Design where she obtained a M.Arch. From

1974-1985 Ms. Simon worked in the office of Marquis Associates in San Francisco where she became a principal of the firm in 1978 and then Head of the Design Studio.

Cathy Simon has taught on the faculty of U.C. Berkelev and the Women's School of Planning and Architecture at U.C. Santa Cruz. She has efficiently managed an architectural career, teaching, public and professional service a long with a husband and daughter. Her architectural works have been recognised by awards including: the Canadian Architect Award for the Tropical Center at the Stanley Park Zoo; H.U.D. Special Recognition for the Rosa Parks Senior Apartments; the American Institute of Steel Construction Award of Excellence of the Primate Discovery Center, San Francisco Zoo; S.F./AIA Honor Award for the Rosa Parks Senior Apartments; the C.C./ AIA Firm Award: the C.C./AIA Merit Award for the Design Professional' s Insurance Company; and the California Preservation Foundation Design Award for the Chambord Apartments.

Her architectural works are on several college and university campuses including: a Humanities building and Hygiene Science addition for Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, N.Y.; Shields Library, U.C., Davis; and the Elena Baskin Visual Arts Studios, U.C., Santa Cruz, Calif. Some commissions were obtained by winning open competitions. Her designs are eminently responsive to each project's program as evidenced by the Primate Discovery Center in the San Francisco Zoo. Designed to house seventeen species of endangered monkeys in seemingly free and natural settings, this zoo represents a new approach to enjoying and learning about animals. The soaring atria are aesthetically composed of curved, vaulted arches, reaching 56 ft at their apex and covered in vinvl covered steel mesh. The landscaping is naturalistic with each primate species in its own environment: the aquatic Macaques have a waterfall; the three smallest monkevs are in gIazed showcases; the tallest atrium with its tall trees accommodates the Columbuses; Mandrills have their mound in a concrete moat; Patras have their grasses; and the nocturnal Owl monkey is housed behind glass in a dark room lighted by a blue light similar to moonlight while being observed from an almost totally darkened room. The facility also includes a learning center in a glass-walled exposition space roofed by three descending glass-walled arches. This primate center succeeds in being a place for conservation and management of animals and for entertainment and education of the public (Fig. 7).

Norma Merrick Sklarek, FAIA. Overcoming the double hurdle of being black and female, Norma Sklarek received her education at Barnard College and Columbia University's School of Architecture. She was the first black woman to become a licensed architect in New York, California, and the United States and the first black woman to be honored by Fellowship in the AIA.

Ms. Sklarek had the opportunity to work on major building projects, gaining experience with sophisticated engineering systems with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill in New York City, Gruen Associates, as Director of Architecture, and Welton Becket Associates, as a Vice President and Project Director. Projects to her credit include: the Oakdale Shopping Center, Minneapolis, Minn.; Park Center Commercial Complex, San Jose, Calif.; Fox Plaza, San Francisco (Fig. 8); San Bernardino City Hall, Calif.; and the U.S. Embassy, Tokyo, Japan.

Like many other women in architecture, Ms. Sklarek

bas been able to balance a full family life with active architectural pursuits outside of her office practice. She has done professional renderings in tempera, taught for a number of years at UCLA on the graduate architecture staff, and has been a guest lecturer at the universities of-. Hampton Va., Columbia N.Y., Southern Los Angeles, Iowa State, and Howard in Washington, D.C. She has held positions on the Board of Directors of the LA@'AIA, CC,' AIA and the USC Architectural Guild.

Norma Sklarek has served for many years as Commissioner to the California Board of Architectural Examiners and as Master Juror for NCARB, grading the Design and Site Planning licensing papers. She served as a technical advisor for the Sth ed. of the Architectural Graphic Standards. She was a principal in Siegel Sklarek Diamond A.I.A. Architects. Norma Sklarek is now with the Jerde Partnership.

Virginia Tanzmann, AIA. After graduating from Syracuse University School of Architecture with a B.Arch. in 1969, Virginia Tanzmann moved to Southern California for her internship and worked in various architectural capacities. Later, she was the architect for the Southern California Transit District directing the work for their widespread maintenance and operatin.- facilities, including both in-house and consultant provided services.


She founded Tanzrnann Associates, a firm with an average staff of twelve. Their projects include master and site planning, programming, special studies, new construction, renovation and rehabilitation, and interiors and graphics. Tanzmann's project types include educational, governmental, religions, medical, industrial, office, retail, transportation, and residential facilities. Some notable examples are: library and law offices for the Center for Law in the Public Interest, Hollywood Bowl Master Plan, Los Angeles, Calif.; Seismic, Fire and Life Safety Improvements; Florwood Manor and Condominiums, 44 units, Hawthorne. Calif. Their private clients include: Buena Park Mall, Fredrics of Hollywood, The Helene Curtis Corp., and the American Heart Association.

Anne Griswold Tyng, FAIA. After obtaining a liberal arts education at Radcliffe, Anne Tyng studied architecture at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. Throughout her professional career Ms. Tyng maintained a passionate interest in mathematics and its relationship to proportion and architecture. This eventually drew her to the University of Pennsylvania where she earned a Ph.D. in architecture with a thesis titled, "Simultaneousness, Randomness and Order." Anne Tyng worked with Louis Kahn for three decades and saw their three person office grow to an average staff of ten and their projects receive worldwide recognition for geometric forcefulness.

Beverly Willis, FAIA. Strikingly individualistic in her architectural background is Beverly Willis, an artist and fresco painter, who did not study architecture at an accredited university. Nevertheless, she became licensed and moved into positions of leadership in the architectural community of San Francisco and in the AIA. To the question, "Why did you become an architect Beverly Willis responded, "The idea and ideals of architecture make the culture of our era. 1 am part of that."

Beverly Willis organized the architect/builder team of Olympia and York, the Marriott Corporation, Beverlv Willis Architect and the Zeidler-Roberts Partnership that won the international competition for the rights to design/ build the Yerba Buena Gardens, a 22 acre mixed-use complex in San Francisco. Together with the Zeidler-Roberts Partnership and Laurence Halprin, Landscape Architect, she master planned the site and developed its conceptual design adopted by San Francisco in 1983.

Ms. Willis was the architect for the first building in the United States designed exclusively for the use of a ballet company. The San Francisco Ballet Association building is located prominently in the performing arts area of the San Francisco Civic Center along with the opera and symphony buildings (Fig. 9).

A worldwide interest in the adaptive re-use of old brick buildings and the revitalization of blighted downtown areas was kindled by the works of. Willis on the rehabilitation and restoration of two buildings in the Jackson Square area in the 1950s and 1960s, William Wurster's renovation design of the Ghiradelli Square, and Joseph Esherick's renovation design of the Cannery. Her distinguished smaller projects include Margaret Hayward Park Recreation building, the River Run Vineyard residence, the Shown and Sons Winery, and the Owl Ranch Poolhouse, all in Napa Valley.

In addition to a number of design awards from various components of the AIA, the state of California and national and regional Builder's Associations, Beverlv Willis was the recipient of the Phoebe Hearst Gold Medal for service to the city of San Francisco and received an honorary Doctorate of Arts from Mount Holyloke College. Her y

work and writings have been published nationally in books, magazines, and newspapers including: Progressive Architecture, Architectural Forum, Home, House and Home, Sunset, Sai,,v, ,IIs., Working Woman, The New York Times, and The Christian Science Monitor.

Zelma Wilson, FAIA. Zelma Wilson studied art at UCLA, architecture at U.C. Berkeley and then received her B.Arch. from the University of Southern California. After working for the Los Angeles Planning Department, she obtained valuable experience in the offices of DMJM. Victor Gruen Associates, R. M. Schindler, and Raphael Soriano prior to opening her own office in Ojai, Calif. As her practice grew Wilson acquired two partners and changed the firm name to The Ojai Group.

Ojai's projects started with houses and grew to institutional work, churches, and private schools. Wilson believes that women bring to architectural concerns that which is not addressed by their male counterparts because women are by nature, nurturers and have a greater concern for the potential users. Zelma Wilson bas won professional recognition with AIA Chapter Honor awards and received AIA Fellowship for outstanding contribution to the profession in the areas of design, education, and community participation.




Flora Manteola, Architect. An architecture graduate of the University of Buenos Aires, Flora Manteola is currently a professor and coordinator of the university's Department of Design Disciplines. She bas been a partner in the Buenos Aires based firm of Manteola, Sanchez Gomez, Santos, Solsona, Arquitectos for over twenty years.

Josefa Santos, Architect. Josefa Santos, like her partner Flora Manteola graduated from the University of Buenos Aires. Ms. Santos is a member of the Board of Directors of the Professional Council of Architecture. Their firm Sanchez Gomez@ Santos, Solsona, Arquitectos bas been published extensively in leading architectural journals in Argentina, Brazil, U.S., Japan, Italy, and Switzerland. They have been awarded over thirty first prizes in competitions and a large number of honorable mentions. Their projects span a wide range of building types from industrial to manufacturing, such as Papel Prensa. a paper manufacturing complex; the Argentina Television Color production center (ATC); and the Fate Tire Factory with employee housing. Commercial projects include the UIA Tower, the Prourban Tower (Fig. 10), institutional buildings, recreational facilities, banks, schools, health care facilities ie, the Clinica Juri, a plastic surgery clinic, multi-unit residences. low, medium, and hi,-h income single-family residences, and mixed-use complexes ie, a community in Buenos Aires with 2100 terraced housing units including a retail center, health care facility, church and recreational facilities, and the Manantiales, Punta del Este in Uruguay (Fig. 11), a terraced one-to-four-story housing community with a spacious plaza and retail center.


Although 30% of the architecture students in the Australian universities are female only 5% actually complete the program with a professional architecture degree. The majority of the women students opt for allied fields such as urban planning, landscape architecture, or interiors. At present, about 3% of the registered architect of Australia are women.

Brit Andresen. After graduating with a B.Arch. from the University of Trondheim in Norway, Brit Andresen worked, became registered, and joined the Architectural Associations of the ARCUK in the United Kingdom and the state of Queensland, Australia. In addition to her architectural practice in Brisbane, she bas served on architecture faculties of. the University of Queensland, St. Lucia and UCLA, Los Angeles. She bas been a visiting critic at the School of Architecture at Malta University, the Portsmouth School of Architecture and the Bristol School

of Architecture in England.

Brit Andresen has won prizes in architectural competitions in Norway, England, Iraq, and Australia for projects as diverse as libraries, housing, and museums. She bas a professional architectural partnership with her husband, Michael Keniger.


One-third of Canada's architect are in Ontario where the total number of women in the Ontario Association of Architects bas grown from 117o in 1960 to about 6% in 1988. Over the past decade a number of women have been recognized with fellowship in the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada for their outstanding contribution to architecture. Several have also been elected as Fellows of the Royal Institute of British Architects.

Pamela Cluff, FRAIC, FRIBA. Pamela Cluff is the principal in charge of design in the firm of A. W. Cluff and P. J. Cluff. In the early years her firm's practice consisted of

schools, residences, and commercial projects. Later the work concentrated on health facilities, specializing on issues related to the elderly and disabled, psychogerentology, criminology rehabilitation, and social development.

Lily lnglis, RIBA, FRAIC. Lily Inglis, born in Milan, Italy, continued her education in England, then immigrated to Canada where she became involved in the protection and preservation of the historic heritage of buildings in Kingston, Ontario. She is a member of the Ontario Association of Architects and bas been involved in the restoration and adaptive re-use of older buildings.

Phyllis Lambert, PhD. ENG. HON, FRAIC. Phyllis Lambert studied architecture at Yale University and received a M.Arch. from the Illinois Institute of Technology. She teaches Urban History at Concordia University and bas won recognition for her work in the field of conservation and restoration on projects in Canada and noteworthy projects as the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles and the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt. As founder and Director of the Canadian Center for Architecture, Phyllis Lambert is building a research center to house an extensive collection of architectural books, manuscripts, drawings, and photograph.

Christine Perks, ARIBA, FRAIC. Christine Perks was born in Poland but received her education in Montreal graduating from McGill University with a B.Arch. She worked in private practice for several years in Bermuda, in the office of George F. Eber in Montreal, as project architect on two buildings at Expo. 67, and in Alberta and Toronto before returning to Ottawa. She is the Director of the Facilities Development Division, Department of External Affairs, in charge of the management of physical planning, design, and construction of buildings and multi-use complexes required in support of Canada's integrated foreign operations.

Heiga Plurnb, M.Arch., FRAIC. Helga Plumb was born in Austria but received her architectural education in Canada at the University of Toronto. She bas worked in Massachusetts, Alberta, and Toronto and bas been on the faculty or a visiting professor at the Technical University of Nova Scotia, the University of Toronto, Harvard University, and Waterloo University. Award winning projects to her credit include the Joseph Shepard Office Building, the Tom Longboat Junior Public School and the Oaklands condominiums and town houses.


The percentage of women in practice in the People's Republic of China and in China's architectural schools is approximately 30%. In 1987 the Beijing Architectural Design Institute had 213 qualified architect, 34% of whom were women. Many of these women have won competitions, commissions, and awards for outstanding designs on major projects. A woman's Architectural Association in Beijing has 116 members.

Huang Hui, Architect. Huang Hui graduated from the architecture department of Tsin Hwa University in 1961. A senior architect with many outstanding buildings to her credit, she has recently won the prize for Excellent Design from the Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection for her outstanding design of the Beijing High School #4. The environment she designed for the classrooms is creative, original and particularly conducive to study.

Qui Xiuwen, Architect. Since graduating from Tsin Hwa University in 1965, Qiu Xiuwen has worked in the government office of the Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection.

Zhai Zongfan, Architect. Zhai Zongfan graduated from the architecture department of Chong Qing University in 1947. Outstanding projects to her credit include the National Sports Center, General Stadium and Swimming Gymnasium in Pakistan and the National Library in Beijing, the largest library in Asia, although massive in size, retains the traditional Asian architectural flavor (Fig. 12). A large sky lighted atrium in the National Library is furnished with landscaped potted plants and benches (Fig. 13).


Eva liricna, Architect. Eva Jiricna studied architecture and civil engineering in Prague. She moved from Czechoslovakia to London in 1968 where she worked for the firm of Louis de Soissons on many large scale, major building projects until 1980. It was however, in interior design that she received wide recognition particularly for the Lloyds of London Building on which she headed the interiors team in the office of Richard Rogers & Partners. In 1985 she went into partnership with Kathy Kerr and pioneered the concept of "less is more" using a palette of black and white, metallic ceilings and walls, and occasional bright yellow accents.

In her firm of Jiricna Kerr Associates, Jiricna has blended modernism and "high tech." This unusual style was utilized in a very practical way in the remodeling Harrods' Department Store in London. Movable walls low departments to expand or contract, the partitions also function for display are constructed of vacuum-formed aluminum and sprayed with automotive metallic paint. The vertical posts, painted a bright yellow, also serve as electrical conduits. Halogen uplights, suspended extruded aluminum ceilings, mirrored panels, and a black floor of reconstituted granite tiles result in a distinctly personal style.



Scandinavian countries have been world leaders in women's rights. Finland in 1906, was the first European country to grant women suffrage and the right to political office. By the last decade of the nineteenth century, women were admitted into the Finnish university and into its architecture program, only through special permission upon application for "exemption from her sex."

The turn of the century saw women in Finland being accepted as full-time regular students into the architecture program and expressed sophisticated democratic ideas with a government reform which gave every tax paying citizen the right of involvement into the decision making of his home town. The twentieth century bas seen the percentage of women in architecture, a traditionally male field, steadily grow to 33% or 500 women out of a total of 1500 Finnish architect.


Elsa Arokallio, 1892-1982. Elsa Arokallio designed many schools including the Hagman School in Helsinki which attracts visitors even today. Her Kauhava barracks were designed with a strict and elegant classicism.


Marta Blornstedt, 1899-1982. Together with her architect husband, Marta Blomstedt achieved functionalisn's most central monuments, the Pohjanhovi Hotel and the Kannonkoski Church. After the death of her husband, Blomstedt designed many other impressive buildings including post offices, a magazine publisher's building, and many houses.

Elsi Borg, 1893-1958. Elsi Borg designed interiors, furniture, book illustrations, and greeting cards. Her architectural accomplishments included hospitals and military


Signe Hornborg, 1862-1916. Signe Hornborg was the first professionally trained woman architect in Finland. She graduated from the Polytechnic Institute of Finland as an "extra student," the term given to part-time students, since women were not admitted as full-time students at that time.

Italy and France

Gae Aulenti, Architect. Gae Aulenti, an Italian architect, was the winner of an invited competition to transform an abandoned hotel and train station (designed by Victor Laloux and built in 1900) Gare d'Orsay into a museum, Musee d'Orsay. On this project Ms. Aulenti functioned as design architect with the French architectural firm, ACT as the associate architect The museum efficiently accommodates 25,000 visitors per day. Her design succeeded in achieving a high quality of light, air, and acoustics. It has been criticized for its strange combination of post-modernism with unseemly materials and forms such as metal bridges with massive structural supports and stone staircases adorned with lightweight aluminum panels. Prior to this monumental assignement, Gae Aulenti's portfolio included showrooms, offices, apartments, stage sets, and exhibition and furniture design.


Solange D'Herbez De La Tour. Born in Bucharest, Rumania, Solange D'Herbez De La Tour received a B.S. in architecture from the University of Bucharest and then graduated as an urbanist and town planner from the Polytechnical School of Bucharest. She opened an office in Paris, France in 1950 where she designed many projects including over 5000 apartment units, cultural and public buildings, university sports buildings, day nurseries, elementary schools, hospital projects, and town planning for new cities. Solange D'Herbez's accomplishments in bringing world wide appreciation of the role of women in architecture was recognized by the AIA by their election of her as an Honorary Fellow. She founded the Union Internationale Des Femmes Architectes (UIFA) which recognized women architect throughout the world and offered them opportunities for an international exchange of ideas, concerns, initiatives, and friendships. As of 1988 there are over 57 countries represented with members from all continents, races, and religions.



The percentage of women in India's architecture schools bas increased steadily from 10% in 1970 to 50% in 1987. There are two notable architectural firms with husband and wife partners : Satnam & (wife) Namita Singh in Chandigarh and Akhila (wife) and Rarikumar in Madras. Another exceptional architectural partnership was formed by two sisters, Brinda Somaya and Ranjini Kalappa.


Ranjini Kalappa. After receiving a B.Arch. from J.J. College of Architecture at Bombay University, Ranjini Kalappa attended Pratt Institute in New York where she received a M.Arch. A few years of experience in New York offices prepared her for the return to her native Bombay where she and her sister opened their firm, Somaya and Kalappa.

Brinda Somaya FIIA. Following in her sister's footsteps, Brinda Somaya graduated from J. J. College of Architecture at the Bombay University with a B.Arch., studied at Smith College, then returned to India and formed an architectural partnership with her sister.

Somaya and Kalappa. Brinda Somaya and Ranjini Kalappa completed their architectural education and apprenticeships in India and in the United States, formed their own architecture and interior design firm in Bombay, later married and each raised two children. Since they have always worked, they firmly state, "Work is an inseparable part of our lives and much hard work and sacrifice have gone into our career." They have received many prestigious commissions including 5-star hotel complexes, exclusive homes, swimming pools, and factories. The West End project on an 18 acre site in the city of Bangalore involves a new 120 room addition, renovation of 100 rooms, new restaurants, swimming pools, a health club, and meeting and convention halls. Other projects to their credit include the Holiday Inn, a 200 room hotel at Bangalore where a stained glass atrium is protected from the elements by a double roof floating 70 ft above the floor level, dominating the hotel interior by day with its soft reflected light and by night by its dramatic impact; the TATA Electric Company's Swimming Pool and Stadium complex in which the possibility of leaka.-e was reduced by elevating it with a series of terraces; a school and training center for spastics at Bangalore; TATA Electronic Development Services Factory near Bangalore is planned to accommodate both human needs and technical requirements. Their architecture is contemporary, but at the same time relates to other buildings in Delhi which are often Lutvens or Moghul style. Without adopting these traditional styles Somaya and Kalappa like to think that their designs relate to these older styles and reflect the socio-economic issues of the 1980s.


From 1982-1986 the percentage of women in Japan's architecture schools has steadily increased from 2.5%-3.3%. The educational requirements and years of schooling parallel that of schools in the United States. There are two categories of certified architect : First Class certificates holders are qualified to design and obtain building permits for all sizes and types of projects, 2.8% are women; Second Class certificates holders are limited to small scale buildings. Japan's Architectural Association's (JAA) membership of approximately 7000 has fewer than 1% women members.

Masako Hayashi, Architect. Masako Hayashi bas won recognition and acclaim for her outstanding residential designs. She is the first women to receive the highest prestigious Architectural Institute of Japan Award. conferred on persons who have contributed to the enhancement of Japan's architectural culture and public well being. She bas also been internationally recognized with Honorary Fellowship in the AIA. Her residential designs create the best possible houses in very limited space with innovative use of building materials, simple, clear cut expression, and bold space utilization (Figs. 14 and 15).

ltsuko Hasegawa, Architect. Itsuko Hasegawa is the first woman architect in Japan to win a large institutional building design award. This prestigious competition was for the Shonandai Cultural Center. After graduating from the School of Architecture, Kantogakuin University she worked in the office of Kiyonori Kikutake then studied and worked at the Tokyo Institute of Technology before establishing her own firm. In 1986 she received the annual award of the Architectural Institute of Japan, the annual award of the Japan Inter-Design Conference, and first prize in the Shonandai Cultural Center Design Competition, now under construction. Hasegawa designed dramatic, unique houses in which she has decreased the volume of each room and achieved savings on the air conditioning. The terrace features a pergola, in summer it can become an outdoor room and in winter serves as a passive energy greenhouse accumulating solar heat. Structurally, her houses are a combination of wood and steel framing. Each house has an individual spatial form with different combinations of curvilinear and straight shapes. Hasegawa states, "I like to permit the occupant to live outdoors. My design of such an outdoor room gives the house not only a sense of spatial extension but a sense that the architecture is part of the natural environment." (Fig. 16).

Norie Kikutake, Architect (1 929-1 988). Norie Kikutake studied architecture at the University of Tokyo, high-rise construction in Mutoh Lab, and design and criticism in Kishida Lab as an assistant to professions. After her marriage to architect Kiyonari Kikutake they opened a studio/office. Kikutake started her career as a practicing architect with Skv House, Izumo, and other major works. Ever curious about the unknown, she participated in various international conférences, made many friends. and was loved for her reserved -but warm personality. Norie Kikutake lived an intellectually and aesthetically full life in her role as an architect and mother of two daughters and one son (Fig. 17).


Among the contemporary, prominent women architect in Mexico are Margarita Bartiloti, Josefina Basail, Margarita Chavez de Caso, Virginia Isaac, Yolanda Snaider Sara Topelson de Grinberg.

Sara Topeison de Grinberg, Architect. After graduating from architecture shool at the Universidad Nacional Autonorna de Mexico (UNAM) in 1971, Sara d Nacion

Topelson Grinberg took graduate studies at UNAM in Contemporary Architecture and later in the Evolution of Space in Mexico, at Politecnico National in the Theory of Architecture, at the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes on the History of Arts in Mexico.

In private practice since 1973, Topelson de Grinberg's credits include the architecture of many housing, educational, industriel and residential projects. She has served as a professor on the faculty of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, the Universidad Anahuac, and the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana teaching courses as diverse as Aesthetic Theory, History of Architecture, Urban Design, Design Workshop, and Mathematics. Sara Topelson de Grinberg has also been very active with architectural societies and associations locally and internationally.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

The architectural profession with its creative and technical demands is viewed by many in the Soviet Union as a profession that requires an extraordinary amount of persona] dedication and self sacrifice often displacing family life. Nevertheless, the percentage of women in the architecture schools today has grown to approximately and the percentage of women architect practicing today in the USSR is about 30%. Many of the woman architect hold positions of responsibility where t contribute to urban planning, landscape architect interior design, and the design of individual building etc.

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